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Centre for Trophoblast Research



Richard continues to study MHC as a Research Assistant Professor at George Washington University.


Key publications: 

CTR-related publications

Hiby SE*, Apps R*, Chazara O, Farrell LE, Magnus P, Trogstad L, Gjessing HK, Carrington M, Moffett A. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.  Journal of Immunology (2014) 192:5069-73.

Apps R, Sharkey A, Gardner L, Male V, Kennedy P, Masters L, Farrell L, Jones D, Thomas R, Moffett A. Ex vivo functional responses to HLA-G differ between blood and decidual NK cells.  Molecular Human Reproduction   (2011) 17:577-86.

Madeja Z, Yadi H, Apps R, Boulenouar S, Roper SJ, Gardner L, Moffett A, Colucci F, Hemberger M. Paternal MHC expression on mouse trophoblast affects uterine vascularization and fetal growth.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA (2011) 108:4012-7.

Apps R, Sharkey A, Gardner L, Male V, Trotter M, Miller N, North R, Founds S, Moffett A. Genome-wide expression profile of first trimester villous and extravillous human trophoblast cells. Placenta  (2011)  32:33-43.

Apps R*, Hiby SE*, Sharkey AM, Farrell LE, Gardner L, Mulder A, Claas FH, Walker JJ, Redman CW, Morgan L, Tower C, Regan L, Moore GE, Carrington M, Moffett A.Maternal activating KIRs protect against human reproductive failure mediated by fetal HLA-C2.  Journal of Clinical Investigation  (2010)  120:4102-10.

Male V, Trundley A, Gardner L, Northfield J, Chang C, Apps R, Moffett A. Natural killer cells in human pregnancy. Methods in Molecular Biology  (2010)  612:447-63.

Apps R, Murphy SP, Fernando R, Gardner L, Ahad T and Moffett A. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) expression by normal trophoblast cells and placental cell lines using a novel method to characterize allotype specificities of anti-HLA antibodies.  Immunology  (2009)  127:26-39.

Apps R, Gardner L, Traherne J, Male V and Moffett A.  NK cell ligands at the maternal-fetal
interface: ULBP, MIC, HLA-F and CD48.  Human Reproduction  (2008)  23:2535-48.

Apps R, Gardner L and Moffett A.  A critical look at HLA-G.  Trends in Immunology(2008)

Sharkey AM, Gardner L, Hiby S, Farrell L, Apps R, Masters L, Goodridge J, Lathbury L, Stewart CA, Verma S and Moffett A. KIR expression in uterine NK cells is biased towards recognition of HLA-C and alters with gestaional age.  Journal of Immunology  (2008)  181:39-46.

Apps R, Gardner L, Sharkey AM, Hiby SE and Moffett A.  Conformation of human leucocyte antigen-C molecules at the surface of human trophoblast cells. Immunology (2008)  124:322-328.

Apps R, Gardner L, Sharkey AM, Holmes N and Moffett A.  A homodimeric complex of HLA-G on normal trophoblast modulates antigen-presenting cells via LILRB1. European Journal of Immunology(2007)  37:1924-1937.

Former CTR Next Generation Fellow
Not available for consultancy